Real-time Dynamic Wrinkling of Coarse Animated Cloth

Russell Gillette, Craig Peters, Nicholas Vining, Essex Edwards, Alla Sheffer

Dynamic folds and wrinkles are an important visual cue for creating believably dressed characters in virtual environments. Adding these fine details to real-time cloth visualization is challenging, as the low-quality cloth used for real-time applications often has no reference shape, an extremely low triangle count, and poor temporal and spatial coherence. We introduce a novel real-time method for adding dynamic, believable wrinkles to such coarse cloth animation. We trace spatially and temporally coherent wrinkle paths, overcoming the inaccuracies and noise in low-end cloth animation, by employing a two stage stretch tensor estimation process. We first employ a graph-cut segmentation technique to extract spatially and temporally reliable surface motion patterns, detecting consistent compressing, stable, and stretching patches. We then use the detected motion patterns to compute a per-triangle temporally adaptive reference shape and a stretch tensor based on it. We use this tensor to dynamically generate new wrinkle geometry on the coarse cloth mesh by taking advantage of the GPU tessellation unit. Our algorithm produces plausible fine wrinkles on real-world data sets at real-time frame rates, and is suitable for the current generation of consoles and PC graphics cards.

Real-time Dynamic Wrinkling of Coarse Animated Cloth

A Material Point Method for Viscoelastic Fluids, Foams, and Sponges

Daniel Ram, Theodore Gast, Chenfanfu Jiang, Craig Schroeder, Alexey Stomakhin, Joseph Teran, Pirouz Kavehpour

We present a new Material Point Method (MPM) for simulating viscoelastic fluids, foams and sponges. We design our discretization from the upper convected derivative terms in the evolution of the left Cauchy-Green elastic strain tensor. We combine this with an Oldroyd-B model for plastic flow in a complex viscoelastic fluid. While the Oldroyd-B model is traditionally used for viscoelastic fluids, we show that its interpretation as a plastic flow naturally allows us to simulate a wide range of complex material behaviors. In order to do this, we provide a modification to the traditional Oldroyd-B model that guarantees volume preserving plastic flows. Our plasticity model is remarkably simple (foregoing the need for the singular value decomposition (SVD) of stresses or strains). Lastly, we show that implicit time stepping can be achieved in a manner similar to [Stomakhin et al. 2013] and that this allows for high resolution simulations at practical simulation times.

A Material Point Method for Viscoelastic Fluids, Foams, and Sponges

Efficient Simulation of Knitted Cloth using Persistent Contacts

Gabriel Cirio, Jorge Lopez-Moreno, Miguel Otaduy

Knitted cloth is made of yarns that are stitched in regular patterns, and its macroscopic behavior is dictated by the contact interactions between such yarns. We propose an efficient representation of knitted cloth at the yarn level that treats yarn-yarn contacts as persistent, thereby avoiding expensive contact handling altogether. We introduce a compact representation of yarn geometry and kinematics, capturing the essential deformation modes of yarn loops and stitches with a minimum cost. Based on this representation, we design force models that reproduce the characteristic macroscopic behavior of knitted fabrics. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method on simulations with millions of degrees of freedom (hundreds of thousands of yarn loops), almost one order of magnitude faster than previous techniques.

Efficient Simulation of Knitted Cloth using Persistent Contacts

OmniAD: Data-driven Omni-directional Aerodynamics

Tobias Martin, Nobuyuki Umetani, Bernd Bickel

This paper introduces “OmniAD,” a novel data-driven pipeline to model and acquire the aerodynamics of three-dimensional rigid objects. Traditionally, aerodynamics are examined through elaborate wind tunnel experiments or expensive fluid dynamics computations, and are only measured for a small number of discrete wind directions. OmniAD allows the evaluation of aerodynamic forces, such as drag and lift, for any incoming wind direction using a novel representation based on spherical harmonics. Our datadriven technique acquires the aerodynamic properties of an object simply by capturing its falling motion using a single camera. Once model parameters are estimated, OmniAD enables realistic realtime simulation of rigid bodies, such as the tumbling and gliding of leaves, without simulating the surrounding air. In addition, we propose an intuitive user interface based on OmniAD to interactively design three-dimensional kites that actually fly. Various nontraditional kites were designed to demonstrate the physical validity of our model.

OmniAD- Data-driven Omni-directional Aerodynamics

Divergence-Free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Jan Bender, Dan Koschier

In this paper we introduce an efficient and stable implicit SPH method for the physically-based simulation of incompressible fluids. In the area of computer graphics the most efficient SPH approaches focus solely on the correction of the density error to prevent volume compression. However, the continuity equation for incompressible flow also demands a divergence-free velocity field which is neglected by most methods. Although a few methods consider velocity divergence, they are either slow or have a perceivable density fluctuation. Our novel method uses an efficient combination of two pressure solvers which enforce low volume compression (below 0.01%) and a divergence-free velocity field. This can be seen as enforcing incompressibility both on position level and velocity level. The first part is essential for realistic physical behavior while the divergence-free state increases the stability significantly and reduces the number of solver iterations. Moreover, it allows larger time steps which yields a considerable performance gain since particle neighborhoods have to be updated less frequently. Therefore, our divergence-free SPH (DFSPH) approach is significantly faster and more stable than current state-of-the-art SPH methods for incompressible fluids. We demonstrate this in simulations with millions of fast moving particles.

Divergence-Free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Functional Thin Films on Surfaces

Omri Azencot, Orestis Vantzos, Max Wardetzky, Martin Rumpf, Mirela Ben-Chen

The motion of a thin viscous film of fluid on a curved surface exhibits many intricate visual phenomena, which are challenging to simulate using existing techniques. A possible alternative is to use a reduced model, involving only the temporal evolution of the mass density of the film on the surface. However, in this model, the motion is governed by a fourth-order nonlinear PDE, which involves geometric quantities such as the curvature of the underlying surface, and is therefore difficult to discretize. Inspired by a recent variational formulation for this problem on smooth surfaces, we present a corresponding model for triangle meshes. We provide a discretization for the curvature and advection operators which leads to an efficient and stable numerical scheme, requires a single sparse linear solve per time step, and exactly preserves the total volume of the fluid. We validate our method by qualitatively comparing to known results from the literature, and demonstrate various intricate effects achievable by our method, such as droplet formation, evaporation, droplets interaction and viscous fingering.

Functional Thin Films on Surfaces

Multifarious Hierarchies of Mechanical Models for Artist Assigned Levels-of-Detail

Richard Malgat, Benjamin Gilles, David I.W. Levin, Mathieu Nesme, Francois Faure

We present a new framework for artist driven level of detail in solid simulations. Simulated objects are simultaneously embedded in several, separately designed deformation models with their own independent degrees of freedom. The models are ordered to apply their deformations hierarchically, and we enforce the uniqueness of the dynamics solutions using a novel kinetic filtering operator designed to ensure that each child only adds detail motion to its parent without introducing redundancies. This new approach allows artists to easily add fine-scale details without introducing unnecessary degrees-of-freedom to the simulation or resorting to complex geometric operations like anisotropic volume meshing. We illustrate the utility of our approach with several detail enriched simulation examples.

Multifarious Hierarchies of Mechanical Models for Artist Assigned Levels-of-Detail

SCA 2015

Symposium on Computer Animation, 2015 edition: Illuminating Ideas!

LazyFluids: Appearance Transfer for Fluid Animations

Ondrej Jamriska, Jakub Fiser, Paul Asente, Jingwan Lu, Eli Shechtman, Daniel Sykora

In this paper we present a novel approach to appearance transfer for fluid animations based on flow-guided texture synthesis. In contrast to common practice where pre-captured sets of fluid elements are combined in order to achieve desired motion and look, we bring the possibility of fine-tuning motion properties in advance using CG techniques, and then transferring the desired look from a selected appearance exemplar. We demonstrate that such a practical workflow cannot be simply implemented using current state-of-the-art techniques, analyze what the main obstacles are, and propose a solution to resolve them. In addition, we extend the algorithm to allow for synthesis with rich boundary effects and video exemplars. Finally, we present numerous results that demonstrate the versatility of the proposed approach.

LazyFluids: Appearance Transfer for Fluid Animations

Nonlinear Material Design Using Principal Stretches

Hongyi Xu, Funshing Sin, Yufeng Zhu, Jernej Barbic

The Finite Element Method is widely used for solid deformable object simulation in film, computer games, virtual reality and medicine. Previous applications of nonlinear solid elasticity employed materials from a few standard families such as linear corotational, nonlinear St.Venant-Kirchhoff, Neo-Hookean, Ogden or Mooney-Rivlin materials. However, the spaces of all nonlinear isotropic and anisotropic materials are infinite-dimensional and much broader than these standard materials. In this paper, we demonstrate how to intuitively explore the space of isotropic and anisotropic nonlinear materials, for design of animations in computer graphics and related fields. In order to do so, we first formulate the internal elastic forces and tangent stiffness matrices in the space of the principal stretches of the material. We then demonstrate how to design new isotropic materials by editing a single stress-strain curve, using a spline interface. Similarly, anisotropic (orthotropic) materials can be designed by editing three curves, one for each material direction. We demonstrate that modifying these curves using our proposed interface has an intuitive, visual, effect on the simulation. Our materials accelerate simulation design and enable visual effects that are difficult or impossible to achieve with standard nonlinear materials.

Nonlinear Material Design Using Principal Stretches