Vinicius C. Azevedo, Christopher Batty, Manuel M. Oliveira
Fluid animation methods based on Eulerian grids have long struggled to resolve flows involving narrow gaps and thin solid features. Past approaches have artificially inflated or voxelized boundaries, although this sacrifices the correct geometry and topology of the fluid domain and prevents flow through narrow regions. We present a boundary-respecting fluid simulator that overcomes these challenges. Our solution is to intersect the solid boundary geometry with the cells of a background regular grid to generate a topologically correct, boundary-conforming cut-cell mesh. We extend both pressure projection and velocity advection to support this enhanced grid structure. For pressure projection, we introduce a general graph-based scheme that properly preserves discrete incompressibility even in thin and topologically complex flow regions, while nevertheless yielding symmetric positive definite linear systems. For advection, we exploit polyhedral interpolation to improve the degree to which the flow conforms to irregular and possibly non-convex cell boundaries, and propose a modified PIC/FLIP advection scheme to eliminate the need to inaccurately reinitialize invalid cells that are swept over by moving boundaries. The method naturally extends the standard Eulerian fluid simulation framework, and while we focus on thin boundaries, our contributions are beneficial for volumetric solids as well. Our results demonstrate successful one-way fluid-solid coupling in the presence of thin objects and narrow flow regions even on very coarse grids.
Preserving Geometry and Topology for Fluid Flows with Thin Obstacles and Narrow Gaps
Xiao Yan, Yun-Tao Jiang, Chen-Feng Li, Ralph R. Martin, and Shi-Min Hu
This work extends existing multiphase-fluid SPH frameworks to cover solid phases, including deformable bodies and granular materials. In our extended multiphase SPH framework, the distribution and shapes of all phases, both fluids and solids, are uniformly represented by their volume fraction functions. The dynamics of the multiphase system is governed by conservation of mass and momentum within different phases. The behavior of individual phases and the interactions between them are represented by corresponding constitutive laws, which are functions of the volume fraction fields and the velocity fields. Our generalized multiphase SPH framework does not require separate equations for specific phases or tedious interface tracking. As the distribution, shape and motion of each phase is represented and resolved in the same way, the proposed approach is robust, efficient and easy to implement. Various simulation results are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our new multiphase SPH framework, including deformable bodies, granular materials, interaction between multiple fluids and deformable solids, flow in porous media, and dissolution of deformable solids.
Multiphase SPH Simulation for Interactive Fluids and Solids
Camille Schreck, Damien Rohmer, Stefanie Hahmann, Marie-Paule Cani, Shuo Jin, Charlie Wang, Jean-Francois Bloch
We present the first method to animate sheets of paper at interactive rates, while automatically generating a plausible set of sharp features when the sheet is crumpled. The key idea is to interleave standard physically-based simulation steps with procedural generation of a piecewise continuous developable surface. The resulting hybrid surface model captures new singular points dynamically appearing during the crumpling process, mimicking the effect of paper fiber fracture. Although the model evolves over time to take these irreversible damages into account, the mesh used for simulation is kept coarse throughout the animation, leading to efficient computations. Meanwhile, the geometric layer ensures that the surface stays almost isometric to its original 2D pattern. We validate our model through measurements and visual comparison with real paper manipulation, and show results on a variety of crumpled paper configurations.
Non-smooth developable geometry for interactively animating paper crumpling
Albert Chern, Felix Knoppel, Ulrich Pinkall, Peter Schröder, Steffen Weissmann
We describe a new approach for the purely Eulerian simulation of incompressible fluids. In it, the fluid state is represented by a ℂ²-valued wave function evolving under the Schrödinger equation subject to incompressibility constraints. The underlying dynamical system is Hamiltonian and governed by the kinetic energy of the fluid together with an energy of Landau-Lifshitz type. The latter ensures that dynamics due to thin vortical structures, all important for visual simulation, are faithfully reproduced. This enables robust simulation of intricate phenomena such as vortical wakes and interacting vortex filaments, even on modestly sized grids. Our implementation uses a simple splitting method for time integration, employing the FFT for Schrödinger evolution as well as constraint projection. Using a standard penalty method we also allow arbitrary obstacles. The resulting algorithm is simple, unconditionally stable, and efficient. In particular it does not require any Lagrangian techniques for advection or to counteract the loss of vorticity. We demonstrate its use in a variety of scenarios, compare it with experiments, and evaluate it against benchmark tests. A full implementation is included in the ancillary materials.
Morten Bojsen-Hansen, Chris Wojtan
When aiming to seamlessly integrate a fluid simulation into a larger scenario (like an open ocean), careful attention must be paid to boundary conditions. In particular, one must implement special “non-reflecting” boundary conditions, which dissipate out-going waves as they exit the simulation. Unfortunately, the state of the art in non-reflecting boundary conditions (perfectly-matched layers, or PMLs) only permits trivially simple inflow/outflow conditions, so there is no reliable way to integrate a fluid simulation into a more complicated environment like a stormy ocean or a turbulent river. This paper introduces the first method for combining non-reflecting boundary conditions based on PMLs with inflow/outflow boundary conditions that vary arbitrarily throughout space and time. Our algorithm is a generalization of state-of-the-art mean-flow boundary conditions in the computational fluid dynamics literature, and it allows for seamless integration of a fluid simulation into much more complicated environments. Our method also opens the door for previously-unseen post-process effects like retroactively changing the location of solid obstacles, and locally increasing the visual detail of a pre-existing simulation.
Generalized Non-Reflecting Boundaries for Fluid Re-Simulation
Ben Jones, Nils Thuerey, Tamar Shinar, Adam W. Bargteil
Physics-based animation is often used to animate scenes containing destruction of near-rigid, man-made materials. For these applications, the most important visual features are plastic deformation and fracture. Methods based on continuum mechanics model these materials as elastoplastic, and must perform expensive elasticity computations even though elastic deformations are imperceptibly small for rigid materials. We introduce an example-based plasticity model based on linear blend skinning that allows artists to author simulation objects using familiar tools. Dynamics are computed using an unmodified rigid body simulator, making our method computationally efficient and easy to integrate into existing pipelines. We introduce a flexible technique for mapping impulses computed by the rigid body solver to local, example-based deformations. For completeness, our method also supports prescoring based fracture. We demonstrate the practicality of our method by animating a variety of destructive scenes.
Example-Based Plastic Deformation of Rigid Bodies
David Hahn, Chris Wojtan
We present a boundary element based method for fast simulation of brittle fracture. By introducing simplifying assumptions that allow us to quickly estimate stress intensities and opening displacements during crack propagation, we build a fracture algorithm where the cost of each time step scales linearly with the length of the crack-front. The transition from a full boundary element method to our faster variant is possible at the beginning of any time step. This allows us to build a hybrid method, which uses the expensive but more accurate BEM while the number of degrees of freedom is low, and uses the fast method once that number exceeds a given threshold as the crack geometry becomes more complicated. Furthermore, we integrate this fracture simulation with a standard rigid-body solver. Our rigid-body coupling solves a Neumann boundary value problem by carefully separating translational, rotational and deformational components of the collision forces and then applying a Tikhonov regularizer to the resulting linear system. We show that our method produces physically reasonable results in standard test cases and is capable of dealing with complex scenes faster than previous finite- or boundary element approaches.
Fast approximations for boundary element based brittle fracture simulation
Gilles Daviet, Florence Bertails-Descoubes
We present a new continuum-based method for the realistic simulation of large-scale free-flowing granular materials. We derive a compact model for the rheology of the material, which accounts for the exact nonsmooth Drucker-Prager yield criterion combined with a varying volume fraction. Thanks to a semi-implicit timestepping scheme and a careful spatial discretization of our rheology built upon the Material-Point Method, we are able to preserve at each time step the exact coupling between normal and tangential stresses, in a stable way. This contrasts with previous approaches which either regularize or linearize the yield criterion for implicit integration, leading to unrealistic behaviors or visible grid artifacts. Remarkably, our discrete problem turns out to be very similar to the discrete contact problem classically encountered in multibody dynamics, which allows us to leverage robust and efficient nonsmooth solvers from the literature. We validate our method by successfully capturing typical macroscopic features of some classical experiments, such as the discharge of a silo or the collapse of a granular column. Finally, we show that our method can be easily extended to accommodate more complex scenarios including twoway rigid body coupling as well as anisotropic materials.
A Semi-Implicit Material Point Method for the Continuum Simulation of Granular Materials
Hongyi Xu, Jernej Barbic
We enrich character animations with secondary soft-tissue Finite Element Method (FEM) dynamics computed under arbitrary rigged or skeletal motion. Our method optionally incorporates pose-space deformation (PSD). It runs at milliseconds per frame for complex characters, and fits directly into standard character animation pipelines. Our simulation method does not require any skin data capture; hence, it can be applied to humans, animals, and arbitrary (real-world or fictional) characters. In standard model reduction of three-dimensional nonlinear solid elastic models, one builds a reduced model around a single pose, typically the rest configuration. We demonstrate how to perform multi-model reduction of Finite Element Method (FEM) nonlinear elasticity, where separate reduced models are precomputed around a representative set of object poses, and then combined at runtime into a single fast dynamic system, using subspace interpolation. While time-varying reduction has been demonstrated before for offline applications, our method is fast and suitable for hard real-time applications in games and virtual reality. Our method supports self-contact, which we achieve by computing linear modes and derivatives under contact constraints.
Pose-Space Subspace Dynamics
Aric Bartle, Alla Sheffer, Vladimir G. Kim, Danny Kaufman, Nicholas Vining, Floraine Berthouzoz
Designers frequently reuse existing designs as a starting point for creating new garments. In order to apply garment modifications, which the designer envisions in 3D, existing tools require meticulous manual editing of 2D patterns. These 2D edits need to account both for the envisioned geometric changes in the 3D shape, as well as for various physical factors that affect the look of the draped garment. We propose a new framework that allows designers to directly apply the changes they envision in 3D space; and creates the 2D patterns that replicate this envisioned target geometry when lifted into 3D via a physical draping simulation. Our framework removes the need for laborious and knowledge-intensive manual 2D edits and allows users to effortlessly mix existing garment designs as well as adjust for garment length and fit. Following each user specified editing operation we first compute a target 3D garment shape, one that maximally preserves the input garment’s style–its proportions, fit and shape–subject to the modifications specified by the user. We then automatically compute 2D patterns that recreate the target garment shape when draped around the input mannequin within a user-selected simulation environment. To generate these patterns, we propose a fixed-point optimization scheme that compensates for the deformation due to the physical forces affecting the drape and is independent of the underlying simulation tool used. Our experiments show that this method quickly and reliably converges to patterns that, under simulation, form the desired target look, and works well with different black-box physical simulators. We demonstrate a range of edited and resimulated garments, and further validate our approach via expert and amateur critique, and comparisons to alternative solutions.
Physics-Driven Pattern Adjustment for Direct 3D Garment Editing