We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.
Real-time Interactive Tree Animation
Christoph Gissler, Stefan Band, Andreas Peer, Markus Ihmsen, Matthias Teschner
Computing the forces acting from a surrounding air phase onto an SPH free-surface fluid is challenging. For full multiphase simulations the computational overhead is significant and stability issues due to the high density ratio may arise. In contrast, the air-fluid interactions can be approximated efficiently by employing a drag equation. Here, for plausible effects, the parameterization is important but challenging. We present an approach to calculate the parameters of the used drag equation in a physically motivated way. We approximate the deformation and occlusion of particles to determine their drag coefficient and exposed surface area. The resulting effects are validated by comparing them to the results of a multiphase SPH simulation. We further show the practicality of our approach by combining it with different types of SPH solvers and by simulating multiple, complex scenes.
Approximate Air-Fluid Interactions for SPH
Stefan Band, Christoph Gissler, Matthias Teschner
The paper shows that the SPH boundary handling of Akinci et al. [AIA∗ 12] suffers from perceivable issues in planar regions due to deviations in the computed boundary normals and due to erroneous oscillations in the distance computation of fluid particles to the boundary. In order to resolve these issues, we propose a novel boundary handling that combines the SPH concept with Moving Least Squares. The proposed technique significantly improves the distance and normal computations in planar boundary regions, while its computational complexity is similar to Akinci’s approach. We embed the proposed boundary handling into Implicit Incompressible SPH in a hybrid setting where it is applied at planar boundaries, while Akinci’s technique is still being used for boundaries with complex shapes. Various benefits of the improved boundary handling are illustrated, in particular a reduced particle leakage and a reduced artificial boundary friction.
Moving Least Squares Boundaries for SPH Fluids
Andreas Peer, Matthias Teschner
Working with prescribed velocity gradients is a promising approach to efficiently and robustly simulate highly viscous SPH fluids. Such approaches allow to explicitly and independently process shear rate, spin, and expansion rate. This can be used to, e.g., avoid interferences between pressure and viscosity solvers. Another interesting aspect is the possibility to explicitly process the vorticity, e.g. to preserve the vorticity. In this context, this paper proposes a novel variant of the prescribed-gradient idea that handles vorticity in a physically motivated way. In contrast to a less appropriate vorticity preservation that has been used in a previous approach, vorticity is diffused. The paper illustrates the utility of the vorticity diffusion. Therefore, comparisons of the proposed vorticity diffusion with vorticity preservation and additionally with vorticity damping are presented. The paper further discusses the relation between prescribed velocity gradients and prescribed velocity Laplacians which improves the intuition behind the prescribed-gradient method for highly viscous SPH fluids. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of the proposed method to a physically correct implicit viscosity formulation.
Prescribed Velocity Gradients for Highly Viscous SPH Fluids with Vorticity Diffusion
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Convincing manipulation of objects in live action videos is a difficult and often tedious task. Skilled video editors achieve this with the help of modern professional tools, but complex motions might still lack physical realism since existing tools do not consider the laws of physics. On the other hand, physically based simulation promises a high degree of realism, but typically creates a virtual 3D scene animation rather than returning an edited version of an input live action video. We propose a framework that combines video editing and physics-based simulation. Our tool assists unskilled users in editing an input image or video while respecting the laws of physics and also leveraging the image content. We first fit a physically based simulation that approximates the object’s motion in the input video. We then allow the user to edit the physical parameters of the object, generating a new physical behavior for it. The core of our work is the formulation of an image-aware constraint within physics simulations. This constraint manifests as external control forces to guide the object in a way that encourages proper texturing at every frame, yet producing physically plausible motions. We demonstrate the generality of our method on a variety of physical interactions: rigid motion, multi-body collisions, clothes and elastic bodies.
Physically Based Video Editing
Tongtong Wang, Zhihua Liu, Min Tang, Roufeng Tong, and Dinesh Manocha
We present an efficient and accurate algorithm for self-collision detection in deformable models. Our approach can perform discrete and continuous collision queries on triangulated meshes. We present a simple and linear time algorithm to perform the normal cone test using the unprojected 3D vertices, which reduces to a sequence point-plane classification tests. Moreover, we present a hierarchical traversal scheme that can significantly reduce the number of normal cone tests and the memory overhead using front-based normal cone culling. The overall algorithm can reliably detect all (self) collisions in models composed of hundred of thousands of triangles. We observe considerable performance improvement over prior CCD algorithms.
Efficient and Reliable Self-Collision Culling using Unprojected Normal Cones
Camille Schreck, Damien Rohmer, Stefanie Hahmann
We propose an efficient method to model paper tearing in the context of interactive modeling. The method uses geometrical information to automatically detect potential starting points of tears. We further introduce a new hybrid geometrical and physical-based method to compute the trajectory of tears while procedurally synthesizing high resolution details of the tearing path using a texture based approach. The results obtained are compared with real paper and with previous studies on the expected geometric paths of paper that tears.
Interactive Paper Tearing
We present a novel method to interpolate smoke and liquid simulations in order to perform data-driven fluid simulations. Our approach calculates a dense space-time deformation using grid-based signed-distance functions of the inputs. A key advantage of this implicit Eulerian representation is that it allows us to use powerful techniques from the optical flow area. We employ a five-dimensional optical flow solve. In combination with a projection algorithm, and residual iterations, we achieve a robust matching of the inputs. Once the match is computed, arbitrary in between variants can be created very efficiently. To concatenate multiple long-range deformations, we propose a novel alignment technique. Our approach has numerous advantages, including automatic matches without user input, volumetric deformations that can be applied to details around the surface, and the inherent handling of topology changes. As a result, we can interpolate swirling smoke clouds, and splashing liquid simulations. We can even match and interpolate phenomena with fundamentally different physics: a drop of liquid, and a blob of heavy smoke.
Interpolations of Smoke and Liquid Simulations