Ben Jones, Nils Thuerey, Tamar Shinar, Adam W. Bargteil
Physics-based animation is often used to animate scenes containing destruction of near-rigid, man-made materials. For these applications, the most important visual features are plastic deformation and fracture. Methods based on continuum mechanics model these materials as elastoplastic, and must perform expensive elasticity computations even though elastic deformations are imperceptibly small for rigid materials. We introduce an example-based plasticity model based on linear blend skinning that allows artists to author simulation objects using familiar tools. Dynamics are computed using an unmodified rigid body simulator, making our method computationally efficient and easy to integrate into existing pipelines. We introduce a flexible technique for mapping impulses computed by the rigid body solver to local, example-based deformations. For completeness, our method also supports prescoring based fracture. We demonstrate the practicality of our method by animating a variety of destructive scenes.
Example-Based Plastic Deformation of Rigid Bodies
David Hahn, Chris Wojtan
We present a boundary element based method for fast simulation of brittle fracture. By introducing simplifying assumptions that allow us to quickly estimate stress intensities and opening displacements during crack propagation, we build a fracture algorithm where the cost of each time step scales linearly with the length of the crack-front. The transition from a full boundary element method to our faster variant is possible at the beginning of any time step. This allows us to build a hybrid method, which uses the expensive but more accurate BEM while the number of degrees of freedom is low, and uses the fast method once that number exceeds a given threshold as the crack geometry becomes more complicated. Furthermore, we integrate this fracture simulation with a standard rigid-body solver. Our rigid-body coupling solves a Neumann boundary value problem by carefully separating translational, rotational and deformational components of the collision forces and then applying a Tikhonov regularizer to the resulting linear system. We show that our method produces physically reasonable results in standard test cases and is capable of dealing with complex scenes faster than previous finite- or boundary element approaches.
Fast approximations for boundary element based brittle fracture simulation
Gilles Daviet, Florence Bertails-Descoubes
We present a new continuum-based method for the realistic simulation of large-scale free-flowing granular materials. We derive a compact model for the rheology of the material, which accounts for the exact nonsmooth Drucker-Prager yield criterion combined with a varying volume fraction. Thanks to a semi-implicit timestepping scheme and a careful spatial discretization of our rheology built upon the Material-Point Method, we are able to preserve at each time step the exact coupling between normal and tangential stresses, in a stable way. This contrasts with previous approaches which either regularize or linearize the yield criterion for implicit integration, leading to unrealistic behaviors or visible grid artifacts. Remarkably, our discrete problem turns out to be very similar to the discrete contact problem classically encountered in multibody dynamics, which allows us to leverage robust and efficient nonsmooth solvers from the literature. We validate our method by successfully capturing typical macroscopic features of some classical experiments, such as the discharge of a silo or the collapse of a granular column. Finally, we show that our method can be easily extended to accommodate more complex scenarios including twoway rigid body coupling as well as anisotropic materials.
A Semi-Implicit Material Point Method for the Continuum Simulation of Granular Materials
Hongyi Xu, Jernej Barbic
We enrich character animations with secondary soft-tissue Finite Element Method (FEM) dynamics computed under arbitrary rigged or skeletal motion. Our method optionally incorporates pose-space deformation (PSD). It runs at milliseconds per frame for complex characters, and fits directly into standard character animation pipelines. Our simulation method does not require any skin data capture; hence, it can be applied to humans, animals, and arbitrary (real-world or fictional) characters. In standard model reduction of three-dimensional nonlinear solid elastic models, one builds a reduced model around a single pose, typically the rest configuration. We demonstrate how to perform multi-model reduction of Finite Element Method (FEM) nonlinear elasticity, where separate reduced models are precomputed around a representative set of object poses, and then combined at runtime into a single fast dynamic system, using subspace interpolation. While time-varying reduction has been demonstrated before for offline applications, our method is fast and suitable for hard real-time applications in games and virtual reality. Our method supports self-contact, which we achieve by computing linear modes and derivatives under contact constraints.
Pose-Space Subspace Dynamics
Aric Bartle, Alla Sheffer, Vladimir G. Kim, Danny Kaufman, Nicholas Vining, Floraine Berthouzoz
Designers frequently reuse existing designs as a starting point for creating new garments. In order to apply garment modifications, which the designer envisions in 3D, existing tools require meticulous manual editing of 2D patterns. These 2D edits need to account both for the envisioned geometric changes in the 3D shape, as well as for various physical factors that affect the look of the draped garment. We propose a new framework that allows designers to directly apply the changes they envision in 3D space; and creates the 2D patterns that replicate this envisioned target geometry when lifted into 3D via a physical draping simulation. Our framework removes the need for laborious and knowledge-intensive manual 2D edits and allows users to effortlessly mix existing garment designs as well as adjust for garment length and fit. Following each user specified editing operation we first compute a target 3D garment shape, one that maximally preserves the input garment’s style–its proportions, fit and shape–subject to the modifications specified by the user. We then automatically compute 2D patterns that recreate the target garment shape when draped around the input mannequin within a user-selected simulation environment. To generate these patterns, we propose a fixed-point optimization scheme that compensates for the deformation due to the physical forces affecting the drape and is independent of the underlying simulation tool used. Our experiments show that this method quickly and reliably converges to patterns that, under simulation, form the desired target look, and works well with different black-box physical simulators. We demonstrate a range of edited and resimulated garments, and further validate our approach via expert and amateur critique, and comparisons to alternative solutions.
Physics-Driven Pattern Adjustment for Direct 3D Garment Editing
Menglei Chai, Changxi Zheng and Kun Zhou
Reduced hair models have proven successful for interactively simulating a full head of hair strands, building upon a fundamental assumption that only a small set of guide hairs are needed for explicit simulation, and the rest of the hair move coherently and thus can be interpolated using guide hairs. Unfortunately, hair-solid interactions is a pathological case for traditional reduced hair models, as the motion coherence between hair strands can be arbitrarily broken by interacting with solids. In this paper, we propose an adaptive hair skinning method for interactive hair simulation with hair-solid collisions. We precompute many eligible sets of guide hairs and the corresponding interpolation relationships that are represented using a compact strand-based hair skinning model. At runtime, we simulate only guide hairs; for interpolating every other hair, we adaptively choose its guide hairs, taking into account motion coherence and potential hair-solid collisions. Further, we introduce a two-way collision correction algorithm to allow sparsely sampled guide hairs to resolve collisions with solids that can have small geometric features. Our method enables interactive simulation of more than 150K hair strands interacting with complex solid objects, using 400 guide hairs. We demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the method with various hairstyles and user-controlled arbitrary hair-solid interactions.
Adaptive Skinning for Interactive Hair-Solid Simulation
Yunfei Bai, Danny M. Kaufman, C.Karen Liu, Jovan Popović
Animation artists enjoy the benefits of simulation but do not want to be held back by its constraints. Artist-directed dynamics seeks to resolve this need with a unified method that combines simulation with classical keyframing techniques. The combination of these approaches improves upon both extremes: simulation becomes more customizable and keyframing becomes more automatic. Examining our system in the context of the twelve fundamental animation principles reveals that it stands out for its treatment of exaggeration and appeal. Our system accommodates abrupt jumps, large plastic deformations, and makes it easy to reuse carefully crafted animations.
Artist-Directed Dynamics for 2D Animation
Fang Da, David Hahn, Christopher Batty, Chris Wojtan, Eitan Grinspun
We propose a novel surface-only technique for simulating incompressible, inviscid and uniform-density liquids with surface tension in three dimensions. The liquid surface is captured by a triangle mesh on which a Lagrangian velocity field is stored. Because advection of the velocity field may violate the incompressibility condition, we devise an orthogonal projection technique to remove the divergence while requiring the evaluation of only two boundary integrals. The forces of surface tension, gravity, and solid contact are all treated by a boundary element solve, allowing us to perform detailed simulations of a wide range of liquid phenomena, including waterbells, droplet and jet collisions, fluid chains, and crown splashes.
Gergely Klar, Theodore Gast, Andre Pradhana, Chuyuan Fu, Craig Schroeder, Chenfanfu Jiang, Joseph Teran
We simulate sand dynamics using an elastoplastic, continuum assumption. We demonstrate that the Drucker-Prager plastic flow model combined with a Hencky-strain-based hyperelasticity accurately recreates a wide range of visual sand phenomena with moderate computational expense. We use the Material Point Method (MPM) to discretize the governing equations for its natural treatment of contact, topological change and history dependent constitutive relations. The Drucker-Prager model naturally represents the frictional relation between shear and normal stresses through a yield stress criterion. We develop a stress projection algorithm used for enforcing this condition with a non-associative flow rule that works naturally with both implicit and explicit time integration. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on examples undergoing large deformation, collisions and topological changes necessary for producing modern visual effects.
Drucker-Prager Elastoplasticity for Sand Animation
Xinxin Zhang, Minchen Li, Robert Bridson
Most fluid scenarios in graphics have a high Reynolds number, where viscosity is dominated by inertial effects, thus most solvers drop viscosity altogether: numerical damping from coarse grids is generally stronger than physical viscosity while resembling it in character. However, viscosity remains crucial near solid boundaries, in the boundary layer, to a large extent determining the look of the flow as a function of Reynolds number. Typical graphics simulations do not resolve boundary layer dynamics, so their look is determined mostly by numerical errors with the given grid size and time step, rather than physical parameters. We introduce two complementary techniques to capture boundary layer dynamics, bringing more physical control and predictability. We extend the FLIP particle-grid method with viscous particle strength exchange[Rivoalen and Huberson 2001] to better transfer momentum at solid boundaries, dubbed VFLIP. We also introduce Weakly Higher Resolution Regional Projection (WHIRP), a cheap and simple way to increase grid resolution where important by overlaying high resolution grids on the global coarse grid.
Resolving Fluid Boundary Layers with Particle Strength Exchange and Weak Adaptivity